The term was used by the mathematician for the square of a line. discovered and proved the law of exponents, 10 10 = 10+, necessary to manipulate powers of 10. In the 9th century, the Persian mathematician used the terms for a and for a , which later mathematicians represented in as and , respectively, by the 15th century, as seen in the work of .
In the base ten () number system, integer powers of 10 are written as the digit 1 followed or preceded by a number of zeroes determined by the sign and magnitude of the exponent. For example, and .