The integration of technology, mathematics, and science education has been gaining attention throughout each of the prospective fields in recent years, particularly at the middle school level. However, little research has been conducted at the high school level to probe whether an integrative approach to teaching and learning technology, mathematics, and science education is valid and worthwhile or leads to improvements in student learning (; ). Moreover, various barriers at the secondary level seem to have an effect on the implementation of integrated approaches to teaching and learning (; ; ; ). In addition, there has been no formal assessment tool to measure whether students experience an improved learning effect due to an integrative format of teaching and learning (; ; ; ).
There are several reasons why today's school systems, particularly at the high school level, do not use integrative approaches to teaching and learning. These reasons include, but are not limited to, efficiency, state goals, standardized testing, teacher-based tests, supplementary materials, and the fact that each discipline provides specialized skills and concepts directly related to the content (). A problem with relying on traditional, stand alone curriculum areas is fragmentation. Students may have seven or eight fragmented periods of study per day, with little or no chance to make sense of the totality of their education.